做温暖的教育

国际教育, 孩子心声

谈仿效

辜鸿铭:十岁出国,9种语言,13个博士学位。

他在翻译论语时说了一个故事:

子曰:“学而时习之。”朱子注谓:“学之为言效也。”余窃谓,学之义甚广,不当作“效”字解,使后之为学者只求其当然,而不求其所以然,所谓依样画葫芦者是也。

【原文】

犹忆中国乾嘉间,初弛海禁,有一西人身服之衣敝,当时又无西人为衣匠者。无已,招华成衣至,问:“汝能制西式衣否?”成衣曰:“有样式即可以代办。”西人检旧衣付之,成衣领去。越数日,将新制衣送来,西人展视,剪制一切均无差,惟衣背后剪去一块,复又补缀一块。西人骇然问故,成衣答曰:“我是照你的样式做耳。”今中国锐意图新,事事效法西人,不求其所以然,而但行其所当然,与此西人所剪之成衣又何以异与,噫!

【译文】

记得在中国清朝的乾嘉年间,当时刚刚开放海禁,有一个欧洲人来到中国,身上的西装破旧了,而当地又没有欧洲的裁缝,于是便找到一个中国裁缝,问道:“你能制作西装吗?”中国裁缝回答道:“只要是有样式,我就能仿照着做出来。”于是欧洲人就拿出一件旧衣服给裁缝做样式。过了几天之后,裁缝拿着制作好的新西装前来交货了。欧洲人打开新西装检查,发现一切样式均分毫无差,唯独新西装的后背处剪掉一块,又缝缀上了一块补丁。欧洲人大惑不解,向中国裁缝询问原因。中国裁缝就回答说:“我这完全是按照你给我提供的样式做的啊!”

时至百年,中国已经是另外一种气象!

待续——

14 thoughts on “谈仿效
  • 尹伊人说道:

    My Motivation for English Study
    When I was a child,I found learning English is very fun,so I enjoyed speaking English at that time.When we heard some English songs,it’s easy to sing. Thus,I tried to remember the lyrics and I loved English gradually.
    A.hobby is the motivation
    When I entered a primary school,the teacher used English grades to divide students into different levels,so it’s very useful to me.I always got number one in English in my class,I enjoyed the priase from my friends and my teachers,because I can get some prizes when I got one hundred.
    B.praising is the motivation
    After grauating from primay school.I travelled to two different countries in the summer holiday.I found I was afraid to speak with those foreign people,even say ”Hellow”.My mom wanted to challenge ourselves. She asked me and her to say “Good morning “To all foreign man we met.She had bad pronunciation but she had smile and courage.It was my first time to try to communicate with someone in English.We made lots of troubles when we can’t talk with foreign people freely.Therefore,I practiced my speaking in a lot of presentation competitions and talking with foreign friends to improve my English. In my middle school,I can communicate with foreign students bravely and got lots of award from those competitions.
    C.travelling easily is the motivation.
    Many people keep the traditional mind in China,like unequal status between men and women or the strict education.I don’t like them, so I look forward to studying and living in different countries.But first, we need language and IELTS score to study aboard.Studying aboard is all my family’s dream,they spent too much money on me supporting me to have a study tour for a month.I want to learn some new knowledge in top university and exchange the advantages in others culture.So I expect to study English well,but I know it’s difficult.We must study harder and harder to achieve it and use some of our spare time to do extra work.Although I am lazing,I am changing.
    D. Succeed in studying aboard is the motivation

  • 张思航说道:

    My motivation for English study.
    We are boats,so English is the river thich connect with the ocean.

    When I was a little child who was a kindergaten student,I had no idea about English. I didn’t know why the kindergarten teachers taught some English words to us such as “apple”, “banana” and “pear”. I just believed that those teachers were dawdlers,because they were too lazy to teach something useful. At that moment, I learnt English for nothing.
    After I began my middle-school life.I thought English was just a kind of language which we need to learn and grasp so that my score of exams could be higher. I tried my best to memorize words and sentences,because I was afraid to be criticized by my family, teacher and classmates. At that moment, English meant nothing to me,I learnt it for other people.
    Fortunately,my view about English study has withnessed an enormous change after I came here.I really appreciate all the people and sources from this school,because me, the boat, know where is the ocean,where is my destination and what I need to and must to achieve.So that I can begin to sail with the real presence of “river”—-“English”.
    About my motivation for English, it consist of two parts:
    First parts: The ambition of myself to other overmatchs
    It is indeed that I’m not good at English,and it is very hard for me to get a good job in English However,I’m a emulative person and I don’t want to be the last few person in my class. For example ,you guys, you are more talent than me. However, I cannot accept this result, I need to break it , I need to surpass you guys , I need, I must become better than all of you.Besides,I always dream that I become a powerful and successful man,and I hope that it won’t just be a dream,I hope it will come ture.So this dream is one of my motivations. So from now on, I will try my best to be the most successful person among you guys. So just ready for it haha.

    Second part: A trouble in communication with foriegn people.
    I always get in trouble when I am talking with foriegn friend.
    Things are this way:I trend to spend a lot of time to consider how to make a sentence to express my thought properly. It is not a simple thing for me, “nervous, shy, hesitant, embarrased…” a variety of negetive emotions affect my expression, as same as stage fright. So, just like my new year resolution ,I hope I can communicate with foriegn friends frequently and confidently. Anyway,this is my second motivation for English study.
    Everyone, Every boats,hope to arrive the ocean.And river (English study) is the only way which must be passed.

  • 余果说道:

    IELTS Exam Preparation
    1. Agility= speed + precision (Reading & Listening)
    2. Benchmarking= learning (Writing)+ best practices/global standard(Speaking)
    3. Convergence= mixing + synergy (win-win cooperation)
    4. Dedication= diligence (Sow an act, and you reap a habit. Sow a habit, and you reap a character. Sow a character, and you reap a destiny.)
    + goal-orientation (6.5 ~7band)

    The war is cruel, and the time is of vital importance in a war. The IELTS exam is not as serious as war, but time also can not be neglected. So when we’re attentional focus narrows, the works will be so easy to finish and the speed will increase. The efficiency in economics is relative to the importance of the speed. The destination of it is ‘the property of a resource allocation of maximizing the total surplus received by all members of society.’ So it shows us the efficiency is composed of speed and accuracy. For instance, I can spend 1 hour to finish my English assignment or finish my further math assignment. However, Ravan can finish both these things in the same limited time. (I am jealous about it!) Also it can be used in IELTS preparing, the IELTS reading need us to read the passage rapidly, so the rest of the time, we can spend time to answer all the questions. And how we can prepare it? I am not good at English but I have some methods to raise our speed and increase the accuracy.
    —–limit your reading time when you do your own reading works.
    —–if you find some words you don’t know, do not look up it by using dictionary, just guess it.
    For listening, the speed and precision also work.
    —–listening every day
    —–the radio play one time, and we need to stay focus to listen the contents and write the key words or sentences quickly
    In my mind, if I want to get higher band, the high quality words and wide knowledge are indispensable. We need to stand on the different level to think about one thing, if we want to analyze it roundly, we need learn different kind of knowledge.
    —–read more books
    For speaking, we are not native speaker who have perfect pronunciation, but we can practice over and over again. Practice makes perfect, the methods to have good pronunciation are also boring.
    —–reading English passage loudly everyday
    —–listen how to pronounce from other students who have good pronunciation
    —–don’t afraid to communicate with foreign students
    The students in this class all have different styles to study, but we have the same destination——-get high IELTS band. From , we know that this book does not want to tell us how to defeat other people, it teaches us how to get a win-win, moreover the IELTS exam even is not a war. Therefore, cooperating with each other is the best choice to achieve our goals.
    —–share your methods like what I am doing now
    —–when some students need your help, do not ignore them
    We always say “we can keep doing it!” “This is too easy to do it”…………However, did we think about how can we finish the task. Sometimes we just said, but did not move. Getting high IELTS band is difficult in this limited time, right? But if we keep working about 1 month, do the regular tasks everyday, and finish them perfectly, I guess we can get aspirational band.
    —–do not stop learning
    And last one, do not forget own destination, guys.
    6.5 band or higher band!

  • 余果说道:

    第二节————积蓄能量,恩师洞开新天地
    背景:父母双亡的左宗棠在没有管束的情况下依次师从贺长龄,贺熙龄

    主要人物与事迹:贺长龄(∙当时经世致用学派的领袖,拥有大量的工程测算技术类实际工作经验。∙与魏源编辑《皇朝经世文编》),贺熙龄(推崇实学)

    影响:两位老师都对左宗棠有很多方面的影响,使左宗棠遵从内心与兴趣,在认定的实学路上越走越远。

    贺长龄给予左宗棠高规格的鼓励“国士”(国家级的读书人),更是语重心长的提醒了季高不要让小官蒙蔽了双眼,限制了自己的成就以及浪费了自己的才能。贺长龄的学问与人品对左宗棠的影响很大。
    贺熙龄则是真正把左宗棠带入实学的人,他让左宗棠,儒学与实学两条腿走路。最重要的一点是,他看出了左宗棠的缺点——双亲去世的打击,寒酸的生活造就了他现在倔强,偏激的性格,并且以鼓励与赞扬左宗棠的优点,来促使他成长。

    读后感:
    • 想要成功,没有贵人的指点是无法高就的
    • 帮助别人成长的方式有很多,赞美与鼓励是很好的一种方式

  • 冯嘉骏说道:

    Hello,everyone.Today,I’d like to stand here to have a presentation so that I can talk about my motivation to study English.
    I guess the first factor should be my family,I know it’s uneasy for them to raise me up,so now I just want to study hard and repay them,I think it’s a responsibility.Then,I also worry about my English will be not enough,therefore I don’t know if I can follow the teacher when I study abroad.And I have no other way to go when I choose to come to the international department,so I need to study English hard.After that,I find that everyone is trying to learn English seriously during this period of study.So what’s the reason that I couldn’t work hard?I don’t expect to surpass all of my classmates as long as I can make a sustainable progress.Maybe there is one more reason that it’s the thirst for knowledge,the more you learn,the more you will know.Besides,this is planning for our future,learining a new language will bring us more convenience such as traveling abroad.
    I think all of the things are casual.If I want to be successful,I must learn knowledge,then I need to study English so that I could study abroad to receive the education.That’s why I can continue learning English.

  • 吴慕尧说道:

    Utilizing the ABCD strategy to English study(IELTS exam preparation)
    Today I want to talk about the relationship between abcd strategy and my English study.
    Here are four strategies that help me to study, it is call ABCD strategy, ABCD strategy A is agility, B is benchmarking ,c is convergence and d is dedication. So first , we much consider how much time we have, how much time left, we need use the least time to do the most efficient and right thing. And before take action, we must know that exactly we want, I need have a clear goal . when I study English I usually will make a plan, how many words should I recite today , and how many article should I read today. And I will take action fast, without hesitate. I want to share a story about my job decision. When I was young age, I want to become a fashion designer, and when I was in middle school, I decided to be a fashion designer, at that time, almost everyone thought I’m too young to decided, but I persisted to become a fashion designer, I thought that’s the right thing for me, if I couldn’t become a fashion designer, I will live with regret in rest of my life, I know exactly what I want, even though no one support me. So when I graduate from middle school ,I obtained the fashion course and I wanted to enter the vocation more faster. So when you really decided to do something , you can do any time, if you want. Then I need more practice and more study, when I decided to do something I will put plenty of time and effort. How can I improve my speaking skill, at first, I learn about phonetic alphabet and make sure every word’s pronunciation is correct. And I find here’s a problem that some listening material may not suit for English study, because that’s not close to how foreigner communication with other people, veritable foreign language need learn from foreign tv series , and I can make sure you guys, this is the best way to practice your pronunciation. I personally think that speaking is a strong sense, only you get this sense, you can always get your pronunciation right and more influence. Then I will mix all the thing I have learned before, and use in daily life, your exam .

  • 余果说道:

    才结束了S1的考试,考完了,我也不再将注意力放在我的正确率上了,现在要做的是集中注意力放到最后两场考试当中。唉!虽然这么说,但是还是觉得自己还是要好好反省一下吧!

  • 余果说道:

    第三节——选择想选择的,放弃该放弃的

    背景:20岁真正参加科考,但是三次考试都没能成功,于是罢考。

    主要人物与主要事迹:曾国藩(曾写文批判科考制度),康熙皇帝(1663年废除八股取士,1665年恢复八股取士)

    影响:
    • 左宗棠早年选择罢考科举
    • 大家都知道科举制度的不好,但是没有人知道改进方法

    左宗棠以实学“技术”眼光,习儒家“义理”经典,作八股教条的文章,自然不受考官喜欢,屡次的不高中让倔强的左宗棠决定不走老路。早在康熙皇帝执政时期,就提出废除科举考试,但是找不到替代的制度,一直都没能废除

    小故事:晚年当官的左宗棠因为没有举人被李鸿章所嘲笑,于是想到了一个恶作剧,向朝廷打报告说要参加考试,但是谁来当他的考官呢。慈禧太后领会了其中的意思,给了他一个“同进士出身”

    读后感:墨家名言——有之不必然,无之必不然。

  • 欧阳莉说道:

    最近重看了一部电影《怦然心动》,以前看的时候没有懂里面的含义,现在重看一遍真的感觉自己错过了这部电影很有意义的地方,印象最深的还是男主的外公切特说的一段话:有些人浅薄,有些人金玉其外败絮其中,有些人会渐露平庸,有些人会小有所成,还有人会出类拔萃。但是总有一天,你会遇到一个绚丽的人。当你真正遇到这一刻,才能明白其中的美好 Some of us get dipped in flat,some in satin,some in gloss. But every once in a whiile you find someone who’s iridescent. And when you do, nothing will ever compare.因为男主当时特别讨厌女主觉得她是一个怪人,还和别人一起嘲讽女主,所以开始的男主和他的父亲一样都是表面金玉,内心浅薄的人,后来的男主因为遇见了女主变得不一样了。

  • 谢雨沐说道:

    这段时间基本上就是被学习给填满了吧,准备雅思比平常学习英语要难多了,记单词,复习。今天的口语测试也是一塌糊涂,口语压根就没复习,数学最近也是被那个网址给搞得头晕眼花,好难。听力测试也是……心态都基本上是炸的,但还是要继续坚持吧。多花点时间就OK了。

  • 龚雪怡说道:

    这几天一直在做雅思的集训,四字概括,生不如死。学的东西和以前完全不一样,还有点适应不了。数学不知道从哪冒出来一个网站,题目倒是不难,就是计分方式……嗯,很微妙。另外电脑不知道又出了什么毛病,一开机就是黑屏,只有鼠标能动,这电脑真的年久失修了吧,三天两头出毛病。

  • 何丞说道:

    今天晚上,我一直都在努力地做数学作业,我的眼睛感觉很累。让我很想不在看电脑屏幕,做数学作业让我明白一个道理,那就是知足常乐,并且,做事情一定要细心。一当粗心,说不定你就会犯下大错。例如:我的数学本来还差一点就九十了,但是,由于一个不小心,我错了。一朝回到解放前。

  • 刘洁说道:

    怎么说,感觉终究所有事情自己都得改变心态吧,往往过强的胜负欲不会指引到好的方向..而是对自己的一种反噬性的伤害..对啊 一直以来奉为座右铭的学长说的话: 踏实一点 无论什么都尽量提前准备 好好学英语 多看点书。。看似平平淡淡 ,然而这无华之实才是最中肯的经验 嗯 但行好事,莫问前程…

  • 李小现说道:

    The topic is to discuss the relationship between the ABCD strategies and how we make a progress in the coming IELTS.
    Agility suggests learners who dream of speaking influent English should take care of speed and precision when learning English. In my view, the higher the speed you try to learn new things of English, the more probably you make mistakes in English. Thus, it is necessary to find how much energy you should put in speed and precision respectively to a comfortable style of learning English for yourself. As the saying goes ‘Rome was not built in one day’, the situation that you forget precision that is more essential than speed is not a good thing, being in a hurry to succeed. This is because speed makes a little role without precision. When you understand the way of using English and try to show it, how you feel that all you represented was in complete disorder?
    According to what I said above, a higher mark of IELTS requires the candidates are responsible for a large range of accurate words and sentences using rather than a high speed which is second. As a result, much effort should be put for precision of English speaking, reading, listening, and writing, rather than speed of doing that. For instance, I was likely to speak English as quickly as possible with Chinese language order which was simple to let everyone in China understand my aim. However, Non-Chinese would have felt confused if they had thought over what I had said. Then I was told although I spoke English fast, my precision of English words selected would be never improved. The best approach for me was to pay attention to using words as normal English speakers did.
    Once I do that, I will gradually become a sophisticated English speaker. Finally, both of them are improved, why not do it?
    This is my opinion about the contact between speed and precision. There are a thousand Hamlets in a thousand people’s eyes. Maybe others have a distinct point of view.

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